April 11, 2003
作者注：我们向有兴趣阅读更多的朋友们推荐下列书籍：迈克尔王， 莫里奥里：新发现的民族（企鹅篇。2000）托马斯-黙顿。甘地非暴力：甘地著作选集（新注， 1965）希拉Natusch， 地狱与高潮。1843-1910查塔姆岛一个德国人的故事（新西兰：神马印刷，1977）大卫科贝是研究主管，保罗 格伦特和乔安妮艾森是独立学会的高级会员。
A Moriori Lesson
A brief history of pacifism.
By Dave Kopel, Paul Gallant & Joanne D. Eisen
Once upon a time, there was a people called the
Moriori. Of Polynesian descent, they are believed to be the first
inhabitants of the Chatham Islands, a group of four main islands about 540
miles east of
Based on study of their language, skeletal remains, and artifacts, scholars
have concluded that the Moriori shared a common ancestry with Maori tribes
who first settled in
The Moriori brought with them a culture of violence and cannibalism. But their revered chieftain, Nunuku-whenua, became sickened by the endless combat he was witnessing. Nunuku jumped between two fighting forces, and ordered the fighting and savagery to stop. The stunned warriors pulled apart. According to Michael King's book Moriori: A People Rediscovered, Nunuku demanded: "Listen all! From now and forever, never again let there be war as this day has been! From today on forget the taste of human flesh!" Those who refused to honor Nunuku's decree would be cursed: "May your bowels rot the day you disobey."
And so, virtually overnight, a warring, violent culture changed to a culture of people who practiced what Mahatma Gandhi would later call "ahimsa," or non-violence. Most of us would recognize the Moriori philosophy as pacificism. As King noted, "The membrane of distance, which had protected the Chatham Islanders from contact with peoples who thought and behaved differently from themselves . . . allowed the uninterrupted evolution of their culture and the successful observance of Nunuku's law."
But the pacifist world of the Morioris would be tested to the limit when strangers began to arrive.
The Taranaki were one of the several Maori
The Maori majority who stayed in
Such was not the outcome in the
King describes the takeover: "Parties of warriors armed with muskets, clubs and tomahawks, led by their chiefs, walked through Moriori tribal territories and settlements without warning, permission or greeting. If the districts were wanted by the invaders, they curtly informed the inhabitants that their land had been taken and the Moriori living there were now vassals."
A council of Moriori elders was convened at the settlement called Te Awapatiki. Despite knowing of the Maori's predilection for killing and eating the conquered, and despite the admonition by some of the elder chiefs that the principle of Nunuku was not appropriate now, two chiefs Tapata and Torea declared that "the law of Nunuku was not a strategy for survival, to be varied as conditions changed; it was a moral imperative."
And so it was decided. There would be no resistance, no compromise with the principle of Nunuku. King continues: "Morioris were taken prisoners, the women and children were bound, and many of these, together with the men, were killed and eaten, so that the corpses lay scattered in the woods and over the plains. Those who were spared from death were herded like swine, and even killed from year to year."
King suggests that the Moriori decision not to fight back was a spur to Maori brutality, for Maoris confused Nunuku with cowardice, "and by implication worthlessness."
By 1862, only 101 Morioris out of an initial number of about 2,000 were left alive. The strategy "not designed for survival" led directly to the destruction of the Morioris. The Europeans watched the slaughter of Morioris by the Maoris, and did nothing to prevent it.
If Gandhi had known of the Moriori, he might have admired them: "To lay down one's life for what one considers to be right is the very core of satyagraha [resistance by non-violent means] . . . [In non-violence] the bravery consists in dying, not in killing," he said. But as King observes, "The Moriori had learned a tactical and philosophical truth that was to be articulated by other people from other cultures in the twentieth century: non-violence is an effective weapon only against an adversary who shares your conscience."
The last full-blooded Moriori, Tommy Solomon, died on
A popular bumper sticker says "If you can read this, thank a teacher." If you're a pacifist who hasn't been murdered or enslaved, thank a soldier.
AUTHORS NOTE: For those interested in reading more, we recommend the following books: Michael King, Moriori: A People Rediscovered (Penguin Books, 2000); Thomas Merton, ed., Gandhi on Non-Violence: A Selection from the Writings of Mahatma Gandhi (New Directions, 1965); Sheila Natusch, Hell and High Water: A German Occupation of the Chatham Islands 1843-1910 (NZ: Pegasus Press, 1977).
Dave Kopel is research director and Paul Gallant and Joanne D. Eisen are senior fellows at the Independence Institute.
Copyright 2015 David Kopel 柯大為