Dave Kopel 柯大為研究論壇 > 西弗勒斯‧史內普
约翰 罗琳的书“哈里波特隐藏的钥匙”的许多优点之一是它强调人物姓名的重要性。几年前在一个国家评论在线review上我发现罗琳对名子“格兰芬多”和“哈利波特”基督教含义的兴趣及似是而非的原理。其它人物名子也有有趣的基督教根源。例如哈利热爱并保护的猫头鹰Hedwig名子就同名于中世纪基督教圣人，一个“主要宗旨为教育孤儿和弃儿”的小型慈善组织 St. Hedwig姐妹的女捐赠人。一个波特迷网站包含了许多人物名子及含义的概要（贯穿卷4）这个网站的全部有趣的信息没有耗尽可以从名子中吸取的意义。
最后，我预测斯内普会牺牲自己摧毁蛇一般的伏地魔, 伏地魔的个人象征（黑暗标志）是从一个死亡头颅中伸出的一个蛇舌头。（这个象征无意中讲授了错误语言是一种死亡形式的课程）。在表面上，刚出版的第六本书中的事件好象完全和我的论题相反，但从另一个角度看，他们是相符的。让我们从第二章“蜘蛛尾巷”， 斯内普 向纳西莎．马份,发了一个牢不可破的誓约开始看。这章的标题表面上是涉及斯内普住的街道。
随着每一个“我愿”，舌焰缠绕着他们紧握的手。（37-39）。我认为斯内普 爱纳西莎，他深爱的人是个自我陶醉者。但是在她生命的是关键时刻----：她的儿子处在致命的危险中，她的丈夫不能保护他们的儿子，纳西莎冒着所有风险-----甚至背叛黑魔王 招来他的可怕的愤怒---而想尽办法来挽救她的德拉科.(32).
知道黑魔王命令马份设法杀掉邓布利多的是与邓布利多 有联系的 西弗勒斯斯内普. 我相信斯内普向邓布利多揭露了黑魔王的阴谋。斯内普还向邓布利多揭露了斯内普对纳西莎做了牢不可破誓约。当斯内普渐渐厌倦了保护德拉科的努力时，他和邓布利多出现了争执，邓布利多坚持斯内普必须保守他的誓约。
当斯内普到达天文塔时，他先视察了现场，但没有行动。邓布利多是无防备的。但是德拉科不能让自己杀邓布利多.塔上其它食尸人很高兴去杀邓布利多,但他们不敢去杀，因为黑魔王 下了命令：德拉科必须是是处决邓布利多的人。因为邓布利多知道， ---（-如果德拉科不能杀他的话。已许下了牢不可破誓约的斯 内普将杀掉邓布利多。）-----只有斯内普会违抗黑魔王的命令，而亲自杀邓布利多.
值得注意的是， 从某种意义上斯内普 保护了哈利。斯内普及时的用符咒阻止了哈利 发出无法宽恕的咒语。斯内普 在第五册书结束时，魔法部摊牌时不在场，所以他可能不知道 哈利已经施了一个不可宽恕的咒语。贝拉特里克斯(指女战士，以及猎户星座的右肩的明星的名字)确实知道哈利施了不可宽恕咒语，但考虑到她自己在部里失败的困窘，或许没有把战斗的每一方面详尽对斯内普说明。
和哈利在学校操场外的摊牌时，斯内普的脸充满了憎恨是可以理解的。哈利 试图施咒于斯内普。这个咒语是斯内普作为霍格华兹的学生，自己发明的. 哈利的爸爸，詹姆波特已经警告他的小学生要用斯内普发明的咒语反对斯内普。（这是在书5中，斯内普回忆哈利看着斯内普的冥想盆）
答案是简单的。斯内普是玄幻魔法的一个极好的从业者。这个玄幻魔法可以阻止阅读思想的企图。记得在第五册书中， 哈利 被命令从斯内普那学习玄幻魔法-----就是想如果波特学得好的话（他甚至几乎没试着学过），波特可以防止伏地魔阅读哈利的心智，尽管在哈利 和伏地魔之间有强烈的精神链接。确实，从一个隐喻性的判断中，玄幻魔法-是斯内普的性格的本质。他是一个表情难以理解的人。（35）。
哈利出生在高锥克山谷。有许多的原因约翰罗琳在书中详细描述过。 认为哈利 是格兰芬多的继承人。当芙蓉德拉库尔用她的法国口音叫他哈利时，他的名子听起来甚至象“继承人”。
但是伏地魔的死/魂器 咒语发在小哈利身上是非常错误的，毁灭伏地魔的身体而消失。也许伏地魔（他自己不为所知）确实创造了那个最后的魂器：在哈利波特自己身上。哈利前额上一小块霹雳似疤痕显然远不是一次袭击所留下的伤痕，因为我们知道它神奇地连接着哈利 和伏地魔. 它也可能是最后的魂器？也是最终摧毁伏地魔, 哈利 自己也必须死的魂器。
催狂魔 肖特 。麻瓜偶然的破坏哈利有个骗局。原因在线。2004年6月4日哈利波特及阿茲卡班的囚徒电影评论
The Unlikely Hero of Harry Potter book 7
By Dave Kopel
魔王 Dark Lord = 伏地魔Voldemort
格兰杰 Hermione Granger
Don’t read the rest of this article unless you’ve finished Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. The predictions for book 7 will necessarily involve the revelation of some important plot details from book 6.
One of the many virtues of John Granger’s book The Hidden Key to Harry Potter is its emphasis on the importance of characters’ names. In a National Review Online review a couple years ago, I noted Granger’s interesting and plausible theories of the Christian subtext in the names “Gryffindor” and “Harry Potter.” Other character names also have interesting Christian roots. For example. Harry’s devoted and protective owl Hedwig shares a name with a medieval Christian saint, who is the patroness of the Sisters of St. Hedwig, a small charitable order whose “chief aim is the education of orphaned and abandoned children.” A Potter fan website contains a compendium of many character names and their meanings (up through volume 4), and the site, while full of fascinating information, does not exhaust the meanings that can be drawn from the names.
Granger points out that the sibilance of “Severus Snape” makes the reader think of a snake, and the crafty, mistrustful Snape has many snake-like qualities. Also, Severus is an unusually severe teacher. However, I think there is a more significant meaning of the name, which perhaps holds the key to the dénouement of the forthcoming book 7. “Severus” is a variant of “sever”—to cut. If run the two words of his name together, so that the consonants link up, then we hear “sever-uh-ssnape,” very much like “sever a snake.”
In the end, I predict, Snape will sacrifice himself in order to destroy the snakelike Voldemort, whose personal symbol (the Dark Mark) is a snake tongue projecting from a death’s head skull. (The symbol unintentionally teaches the lesson that false speech is a form of death). At a surface level, the events of the just-published book 6 seem entirely contrary to my thesis, but looked at from another angle, they confirm it. Let’s begin with chapter 2, “Spinner’s End,” in which Snape makes the Unbreakable Vow to Narcissa Malfoy. The chapter’s title ostensibly refers to the street where Snape lives.
But the chapter is also the beginning of the end of Snape’s life of deceptions and double games, of trying to play both sides of the street. As he explains to Narcissa and Bellatrix, he once “spun” an elaborate “tale of deepest remorse” in order to gain Dumbledore’s protection. (Page 31).When Narcissa asks him for the Unbreakable Vow, Bellatrix sneers that Snape will offer only “The usual empty words, the usual slithering out of action…” (35). But, perhaps for the first time in his life, Snape surrenders himself for another. The consequence of breaking an Unbreakable Vow is death.
Marriage is, in its sanctified state, an unbreakable vow, and the enchantment ceremony is remarkably like a wedding: Snape looks into Narcissa’s tearful eyes, kneels before her, and they clasp hands. In the presence of a Bonder, Snape is asked questions which evoke the rhythm of the wedding vows: “Will you, Severus, watch over my son…” To each question, Snape responds, “I will”—reminiscent of the “I do” of the unbreakable vows in a wedding.
With each “I will,” a tongue of flame coils around their intertwined hands. (36-37). Snape loves Narcissa, I suggest. His beloved is a narcissist, but at the greatest crisis of her life—when her son is mortal peril, and her husband is unable to protect their son, Narcissa risks everything—even betraying the Dark Lord and incurring his terrible wrath—in a desperate attempt to save her Draco. (32).
Because Narcissa and Snape love, they ultimately, not true servants of the Dark Lord.
Months later, Hagrid tells Harry about a recently overheard argument between Dumbledore and Snape: “I jus’ heard Snape sayin’ Dumbledore took too much for granted an’ maybe he—Snape—didn’ wan’ ter do it anymore…Dumbledore told him out he’d agreed to do it an’ that was all there was to it.” (405-06).
In the climactic confrontation between Dumbledore and Draco, on the
The one person who knows that the Dark Lord has ordered Malfoy to attempt to kill Dumbledore and is a person who has any contact with Dumbledore is Severus Snape. I believe that Snape revealed the Dark Lord’s plot to Dumbledore. And that Snape also revealed to Dumbledore that Snape had made an Unbreakable Vow to Narcissa. The argument between Dumbledore and Snape had occurred when Snape grew weary in his efforts to protect Draco, and Dumbledore insisted that Snape must keep his vow.
Dumbledore’s knowledge of the third part of Snape’s vow—to kill Dumbledore if Malfoy could not—explains what happened shortly before Dumbledore’s death. Dumbledore wanted to die (I’ll explain why in a little bit), and he knew that Snape was the man who could—and must—perform the deed.
Consider the ambiguity of Dumbledore’s words as Harry and he rush back to Hogwarts: “It is professor Snape whom I need.” (580). This time, Dumbledore is not looking for Snape to heal him, as Snape had done the previous summer, when Dumbledore had returned badly injured from a fierce battle.
When Snape arrives at the
It is then that Dumbledore begs Snape to fulfill his vow: “Severus,” says the headmaster. “For the first time, Dumbledore was pleading.” (595). “Severus…please…”
If Snape were following Dumbledore’s wishes, why were “revulsion and hatred etched” in Snape’s face as a gazed at Dumbledore just before killing him? Firstly, revulsion at having to perform an Unforgivable Curse, the death spell Avada Kedavra. Discussing the killing afterwards, the Hogwarts teachers and pupils agree that they had never believed that Snape, for all his faults, could kill a man. To fulfill the Unbreakable Vow and Dumbledore’s wishes, Snape had act in revolt against his true nature.
As for the “hatred”, Snape knows that a wizard must act with hatred in order to successfully cast an Unforgivable Curse. Hatred comes easily to Snape, and he had all sorts of resentments which he could bring to mind—including, perhaps, hatred of Dumbledore for making Harry Potter into the headmaster’s favorite. And then there is a full reservoir of self-hatred from his miserable childhood, compounded by his many cruelties as an adult.
But my guess is that the primary source of the “revulsion and hatred” is that Snape knows the same things that Dumbledore had learned just a few minutes before, when Dumbledore drank the magic potion--from the basin in the secret lake where Voldemort had hidden a Horcrux. (Note the meaning of “whore/horrible cross”—a perverted version of the soul-saving object which overcomes death.)
Dumbledore suffered agony while drinking the ten goblets of potion. Harry presumed that Dumbledore was simply hallucinating while he drank, but I believe that Dumbledore instead was seeing some terrible truths.
Harry saw Dumbledore become frightened. He moaned “…don’t like…want to stop…I don’t want to…Let me go… Make it stop, make it stop.” (The last phrase echoes the frightened scream “make it stop” of the girl Regan, who is possessed by a demon in The Exorcist.) Dumbledore continued, “I can’t, don’t make me, I don’t want to…”
Then, “It’s all my fault, all my fault…I know I did wrong, oh please make it stop and I’ll never, never again…Don’t hurt them…it’s my fault, hurt me instead…” (The last phrase echoes what the young exorcizing priest Father Karras yelled at the demon: “Take me” The demon immediately left the girl’s body, and inhabited the Karras, who immediately hurled himself out the window to his death—thereby thwarting the demon; he survived just long enough to receive last rites, and die peacefully.)
Dumbledore implored “Make it stop, make it stop, I want to die!”
Then, as just before Harry gave Dumbledore the tenth and final goblet, Dumbledore yelled “Kill me!” “‘This—this one will!’ gasped Harry.” (573).
Dumbledore, I believe, realized that he had made a terrible mistake which had empowered Voldemort, and that only by dying could Dumbledore stop the harm from that mistake. As Dumbledore had told Harry long before, “I make mistakes like the next man. In fact, being—forgive me—rather cleverer than most men, my mistakes tend to be correspondingly huger.” (197).
What was the mistake? It likely has something to do with the meeting that Voldemort arranged years ago with Dumbledore, ostensibly to apply for a professorship at Hogwarts. Dumbledore was baffled by the meeting, since Voldemort (a/k/a Tom Riddle) plainly knew that there was no chance that Dumbledore would hire him, and Dumbledore knew that Riddle knew.
Yet Dumbledore let Riddle into Dumbledore’s own office. Watching a replay of the meeting in Dumbledore’s Pensieve, Harry notices something at the very end of the meeting, which Dumbledore, it seems, did not: “For a second, Harry was on the verge of shouting a pointless warning: He was sure that Voldemort’s hand had twitched toward his pocket and his wand; but the moment had passed, Voldemort had turned away, the door was closing, and he was gone.” (446).
Whatever malignant spell that Voldemort secretly cast on that day—enchanting something in Dumbledore’s own office, or even Dumbledore himself--had consequences which Dumbledore only realized when he drank the potion on the island. The spell may have involved inserting into Hogwarts (in a deep magical disguise) the four followers of Voldemort who were waiting gathered in the town outside Hogwarts. As Dumbledore told Riddle during the interview, it made no sense for Riddle to have been accompanied by the four, if Riddle only wanted to speak with Dumbledore.
In any case, Dumbledore understood, for reasons that are still unclear to us, that he had to die soon in order to save innocents.
Snape’s final scene is consistent with the thesis that Snape is not a true servant of the Dark Lord.
Significantly, Snape protects Harry, in a sense. Snape’s timely spell-casting prevents Harry from uttering an Unforgivable Curse. Snape was not present in the showdown at the Ministry of Magic at the end of book 5, so he may not know that Harry has already cast an Unforgivable Curse. Bellatrix (meaning female warrior, and also the name of the bright star that is Orion’s right shoulder) does know that Harry uttered an Unforgivable Curse, but—given her embarrassment at her own failure in the Ministry—may not have given Snape a blow-by-blow account of every aspect of the battle.
In the showdown with Harry outside the school grounds, Snape’s face is full of hatred, but it’s understandable. Harry attempts to cast a spell on Snape which Snape, as a Hogwarts student, had invented himself. Harry’s father, James Potter, had bullied his fellow student Snape by using a Snape-invented spell against Snape. (This is the Snape memory that Harry watched in Snape’s Pensieve, in book 5.)
If Snape has always been playing a complex double game against Voldemort (or at least working both sides of the street, and keeping his options open, to make sure he can jump to the winning side), why doesn’t Voldemort know? After all, the Dark Lord is, as Snape says in chapter 2, “the most accomplished Legilimens the world has ever seen?” (Like many spells, Legilmens is just a Latin variant; in this case, for “read-mind.”)
This answer is easy. Snape is a superb practitioner of Occlumency, which blocks an attempt to read one’s mind. Remember that in book 5, Harry was ordered to take Occlumency lessons from Snape—with the expectation that if Potter learned well (he barely even tried), Potter would be able to prevent Voldemort from reading Harry’s mind, despite the intense mental link between Harry and Voldemort. Indeed, Occlumency, in a metaphorical sense, is the essence of Snape’s character. He is the man of the “unreadable” expression. (35). Ever since book 1, Rowling has been pulling surprises about Snape, so that readers never know for certain what are Snape’s true intentions.
Consider the possibility that Snape may know the full prophecy. In book 5, Dumbledore explains to Harry how job applicant Sybil Trelawny entered a trance, which she does not remember, and uttered the prophecy one night shortly before Harry was born. (427) (Her first name comes from the Greek “Sibylla,” meaning “prophetess.” She shares a last name with Edward John Trelawny, a 19th century English “self-promoting…brilliant story-teller…[who]…was far from truthful.” Professor Trelawny is mostly a self-promoting fraud, but she does get things right sometimes, as in book 6, when the cards keep sending message of impending doom on a tower.)
tells Harry that her job interview with Dumbledore was interrupted by the
discovery that Snape was eavesdropping. (545). Dumbledore
presumes that Snape only told Voldemort the first half of the
prophecy. (549) (The first part identifies a baby born July 31—either Harry
Potter or Neville Longbottom—as a dangerous foe
of Voldemort.) Dumbledore’s presumption is accurate, since Voldemort clearly
does not know the second half of the prophecy, and spent all of book
Accordingly, Dumbledore and Harry presume that Snape does not know the second half of the prophecy, because they assume that Snape, who at the time was a Death Eater, would have told Voldemort everything that Snape knew. But maybe Dumbledore and Harry are wrong in their presumption. Perhaps Snape was playing a double game even then, and decided to retain some options for himself by keeping the second half of the prophecy to himself. Especially because the prophecy suggests that Voldemort’s side might not be the winning side in the long run.
The first half of the prophecy is:
“The one with the power to vanquish the Dark Lord approaches. born to those who have thrice defied him, born as the seventh month dies . and the Dark Lord will mark him as his equal, but he will have power the Dark Lord knows not”
The second half of the prophecy explains, I suggest, why Harry must die in book 7, so that Voldemort can be destroyed:
and either must die at the hand of the other for neither can live while the other survives. The one with the power to vanquish the Dark Lord will be born as the seventh month dies.
“[N]either can live while the other survives.” On the face of it, the statement is absurd. Voldemort and Harry are both alive, and both survive, simultaneously. We tend to think of “live” and “survive” as synonyms. Yet if the two words are synonyms, the prophecy is incorrect.
It could be argued, if a person is not mortal, he is in a sense not truly living. The immortal creatures (that is, creatures which survive endlessly) which we have seen are ghosts and inferni. Each of them survives, yet neither of them lives.
Thus, as long as Harry survives, Voldemort is not mortal. Accordingly, Voldemort is, in a sense, not living. And perhaps, in some as-yet unknown way, Harry is immortal as long as Voldemort survives.
Referring to Godric Gryffindor’s sword, Dumbledore states, “the only known relic of Gryffindor remains safe” from Voldemort’s attempt to implant a Horcrux. (505) Yes, but could there be an unknown relic of the co-founder of Hogwarts? Such as the last living descendant of Godric Gryffindor (just as Voldemort, the Heir of Slytherin, is the last descendant of Salazar Slytherin)?
Harry was born in Godric Hollow. There are numerous reasons, detailed in the book by John Granger, to believe that Harry is the Heir of Gryffindor. His name even sounds like “heir” when Fleur Delacour call him 'Arry with her French accent.
The reason that Harry must die in order that Voldemort may “live” (as a mortal) rather than “survive” (as a deathless immortal) is that the final Horcrux is contained within Harry himself.
At the very end of book 6, Harry announces his plans to return briefly to the Dursleys (pursuant to Dumbledore’s previous instructions), and then to go for the first time in his life to Godric Hollow, the home of his infancy, before setting out on a quest for the Horcruxes. (630-31). The journey to the home where his parents were murdered will be even more significant to his quest than Harry currently realizes.
By returning in the summer of his 16th year to the unhappy home where he was raised, and thereafter to the place where he was born, Harry will recapitulate what Tom Riddle did in the summer of his own 16th year. (363).
“I am sure he was intending to make his final Horcrux with your death,” Dumbledore explained to Harry. (506).
But Voldemort’s death/Horcrux spell on baby Harry went terribly wrong, and blasted Voldemort’s body out of existence. Yet maybe Voldemort did, unbeknownst to himself, create that final Horcrux: in Harry Potter himself. The lightning bolt scar on Harry’s forehead is clearly more than a wound from the attack, since we know it magically links Harry and Voldemort. Could it also be the final Horcrux? And so for Voldemort to be destroyed with finality, Harry himself must die too.
Perhaps there’s some way to destroy only the Horcrux, without killing Harry. But from what we’ve seen so far, in order to destroy a Horcrux, such as the one contained in Tom Riddle’s diary, one must destroy the Horcrux-carrier too. (The Letters of Marque blog by Michigan Law student Heidi Bond contains an extensive discussion of the “Harry has a Horcrux” theory.)
One final mystery: who is the “R.A.B.” who had already swiped the
Horcrux from the basin on the island on
Remember Dumbledore’s words to Harry, as the two of them successfully returned from their journey through Voldemort’s lake in the cave: “One alone could not have done it…” (577).
So “R.A.B.” might be the initials for a team of three wizards who took the Horcrux locket. Yet the enchanted boat which is necessary to cross from the shore to the island can detect magic, and will only allow a single adult wizard passenger. The boat does not prevent Harry from riding with Dumbledore because Harry is still underage, and thus his powers apparently do not “register” with the boat’s passenger detectors. (564). If so, it would seem impossible that three adult wizards could have ridden the boat. Were at least two of the “R.A.B” trio underage? Or did they just bring brooms so they could fly?
Moreover, whoever took the Horcrux would have needed to first empty the basin by drinking all its potion. So how did the basin get refilled with potion by the time Harry and Dumbledore arrived?
Here’s my theory: R.A.B. refers, in whole or in part, to Severus Snape. When Hermione reports on her archival research about wizards with the initials R.A.B., none of whom seem plausibly to be the Horcrux-taker, she concludes, “No, actually, it’s about…well, Snape.” (636). What she means is that while looking up “R.A.B.,” she ran across a small newspaper article revealing that Snape’s mother had the maiden name “Prince” and she married a muggle; Hermione has discovered why Severus Snape called himself “The Half-blood Prince.” (636-37). But perhaps Hermione has said more than she knows when she says that “R.A.B.” is about Snape.
As a potions genius, Snape might have known a way to neutralize the potion while consuming it. He likewise might have known how to re-fill the basin with fresh potion, after he had emptied it, and taken the Horcrux.
I believe that Harry is correct in his prediction, “if I meet Severus Snape along the way, so much the better for me, so much the worse for him.” (651) But how things work out between Snape and Harry will be immensely more complex than Harry now understands.
searched the web for “R.A.B.” plus “legends.” What I found was the
Once there was a Canaanite named Reprobus, a huge man of “right great stature” who bore “a terrible and fearful” countenance. He decided “that he would seek the greatest prince that was in the world, and him would he serve and obey.” So first Reprobus served the most powerful king in the world. But then he learned that the king was afraid of the devil. So Reprobus left the king and went to find the devil. Upon meeting him, Reprobus “took him for his master and Lord.” Later, Reprobus discovered that the devil was afraid of Christ.
So Reprobus left the devil, and asked a hermit
to tell him how to serve Christ. The hermit ordered him to use his great
strength to carry travelers across a nearby river. One day, he was carrying
a child, “And the water of the river arose and swelled more and more: and
the child was heavy as lead… And when he was escaped with great pain, and
passed the water, and set the child aground, he said to the child: Child,
thou hast put me in great peril; thou weighest
almost as I had all the world upon me, I might
bear no greater burden.” The passenger revealed himself as the Christ-child,
and gave Reprobus a staff which could perform
The name of Reprobus (“wicked person”) was changed to Christopher (“Christ-bearer”), the first usage of that name. Christopher and his staff performed many miracles, converted thousands of souls, and, in facing martyrdom bravely, converted still more.
I doubt that J.K. Rowling plans to work the Golden Legend directly into volume 7, but—given her extremely broad knowledge of literature and of the inspiring myths and legends of Europe—it is almost impossible that she doesn’t know the Golden Legend.
In any case, I expect that the final volume of the Harry Potter series will complete the story of Severus Snape as a wicked man who first served ordinary power, then Evil incarnate, and finally—by courageously risking his own life and using his enormous talents—will come face-to-face with the Right, as he is liberated from the burden of his own sins, and liberates many other sinners as well.
Also by Dave Kopel:
A Dementor Short.
Mugglewear Casual mars Harry hat trick.
National Review Online.
Rumors: Quash one, fuel one.
While debunking Harry Potter author's Satanist 'quotes,' News promotes
drug's 'role' in deaths. Rocky Mountain
Mugglemania. Harry Potter is the ur-libertarian who just might save civilization. National Review Online. July 22-23, 2000.
Copyright 2015 David Kopel 柯大為